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Đang xem: Valuation là gì
When Wall Street finally realized its dot-com valuations were off by 90% to 100%, the stock market damage was spectacular.
More troubling was the finding that the source of valuation for cost estimates was often unclear or not reported.
Uninformed and inefficient trade of environmental quality for capital inflows may be due to an incorrect valuation of environmental damages.
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The discussion and valuation of pension promises is presented intuitively, making it easy to follow and to understand the economics behind pension funding and accounting.
Table 1 indicates the valuation for hourly costs (social security contributions included), and tariffs for personnel involved in either health care or coordination.
Mediation among media means recognition and valuation of independent, if marginalized, indistinct, and indecipherable voices.
The valuation of time otherwise spent on leisure activities or unpaid work is more difficult (9;20).
Contingent valuation surveys can also be used to estimate the willingness of consumers to pay for public broadcasting.
Now monetary exchange is challenged by costly deterministic matching, and both valuation of money and relative extent of the competing trade mechanisms are determined endogenously.
The single non-blockable equilibrium has transfers between nations at their marginal valuation, based on their order along the river.
In the absence of markets and money as a commensurable unit of valuation, economic actors would be unable to make rational decisions concerning productive alternatives.
We shall return to the problem of extending a valuation to a measure, but only to the generated algebra, not the generated -algebra.
These marginal contributions should be determined by including in the valuation process an understanding of the scientific properties of the environmental service.
The standard approaches to economic evaluation equate “societal valuation” with health gain measured in (equally weighted) quality-adjusted life-years.
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