Nghĩa Của Từ Retrospectively Là Gì, Nghĩa Của Từ Retrospective

if a law, decision, etc. is retrospective, it has effect from a date in the past before it was approved:

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He described stamp duty on property transactions as “an unfair and retrospective tax” on long-term savers.
The data-collection sessions took about 11/2 hours for each student, including the training, think-aloud protocol, and retrospective interview.
Unlike our study in which data were collected prospectively, most studies have assessed the level of agreement between participants” retrospective reports and administrative data.
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Separate models were specified for men and women to assess the extent to which relationships between current and retrospective multiple occupancy differed by gender.
Here lies the alternative risk of over-interpretation, of a retrospective search for misplaced significance.
Since the study involved retrospective thought, the respondents were required to have adequate cognitive capacity for daily social functioning.
Five retrospective studies employing life events interviews specifically examined the role of independent stressors in onsets of manic episodes.
Recall that the logic behind this result is that retrospective, incumbency-oriented voters will punish incumbents for poor economic performances.
Some observers contend that men tend to be prospective whereas women are retrospective in their political-economic assessments.
Retrospective confirmation that all regional laboratory results had been received was not possible, however the records of returns from each laboratory contained no apparent omissions.
The use of retrospective self-reporting on behalf of the participants is also a limiting factor when investigating behavior change.

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Also, for retrospective studies, questionnaires administered after disease occurrence are often the only feasible tool to obtain information regarding risk behaviours that preceded disease.
This is a salutary lesson for truly prospective, rather than reconstructed cohorts in terms of filling in missing data with retrospective information.
For those patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture, the design was retrospective because of the urgent nature of the process.
To determine if analyses between removal and exclosure control plots were “real”, retrospective power analyses were conducted using a two-sample unequal variance calculation.
This attitude is particularly noticeable in retrospective writing on rock history, which often obliterates any trace of all but a token few women.


the right of different groups of people to have a similar social position and receive the same treatment

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