Pronouns: Personal ( I, Me Him Her Us Them Là Gì, Đại Từ Trong Tiếng Anh Dùng Như Thế Nào

Grammar > Nouns, pronouns and determiners > Pronouns > Pronouns: personal (I, me, you, him, it, they, etc.)

We use personal pronouns in place of noun phrases. We often use them to refer back to people and things that we have already identified (underlined):

Peter complained to the chef about the meal. She wasn’t very helpful so he spoke to the manager. (she = the chef, he = Peter)

Personal pronouns show person and number. He, she, him and her show gender. They have different subject and object forms (except you, it and one which have only one form):

subject

object

number

gender

person

I

me

singular

first

you

you

singular or plural

second

he

him

singular

masculine

third

she

her

singular

feminine

third

it

it

singular

third

we

us

plural

first

they

them

plural

third

one

one

generic

third

Personal subject pronouns act as the subject of a clause. We use them before a verb to show who is doing the verb. We do not usually leave out the pronoun:

She loves playing basketball.

Đang xem: Me him her us them là gì

Not: … loves playing basketball.

They don’t finish the lesson until four o’clock.

It’s getting late.

We use personal object pronouns in all other positions, such as after the verb or after a preposition:

Paula’s coming to visit us in September. (us = object)

Thanks again for everything you did for me. (for me = prepositional phrase)

We also use personal object pronouns as complements of the verb be:

That’s him. That’s the man I was talking about. (him = complement of be)

We can use some object pronouns (me, him, her, us and them) as short answers, particularly in informal speaking:

A:

Who ate all the biscuits?

B:

Me. (or more formally: I did.)

I, me

We use I and me to refer to the speaker or writer. I is the subject form and me is the object form:

I can’t come on Friday. I’m working.

I am writing to apply for the position of …

Helen asked me to get some milk.

It’s me. Can you open the door? I haven’t got my key. (It is I. is not often used. It is very formal.)

Spoken English:

We sometimes hear me used as a subject in informal speaking after another subject + and:

My friends and me went on holiday to a little town on the south coast. (or Me and my friends went on holiday …; My friends and I went … is considered to be more correct.)

We sometimes use us to refer to me in informal speaking:

Pass us an orange, will you?

You

We use you to refer to the listener or reader. It is both the subject and the object form. You can refer to one person or more than one person. It is usually clear from the context whether you is singular or plural:

Paul, do you need any help? (refers to one person, Paul)

The match starts at 10.30. I need you to be here at 10. (refers to a group of people)

We sometimes use you all to address everyone in a group:

What would you all like to eat?

In informal contexts, we also use you to refer to people in general, not someone specific:

You get a pension if you’re a man over the age of 65 or a woman over 60.

He, him; she, her

He, him, she and her are singular third person pronouns. He and him are the masculine forms. She and her are the feminine forms:

A:

Have you seen Johnny Roberts recently?

B:

Yes I saw him in town last week. He’s looking really well.

She didn’t like the way he spoke to her.

Traditionally, he and him were used to refer to both genders in formal writing:

If anyone has any evidence to oppose this view, let him inform the police immediately.

Nowadays, we often see gender neutral forms (e.g. he or she, he/she, s/he, (s)he, they and him or her, him/her, them) when we do not know if the person referred to is male or female:

The bank manager could help with your problem. He or she will probably be able to give you a loan. (or … he/she will probably be able to … or … they will probably be able to …)

Go to a hairdresser. Ask him or her to come up with a style that suits you, your hair, your lifestyle. (or … ask him/her to come up with a style … or … ask them to come up with a style …)

When you get into the building, go to the person on the desk in the reception area. They can tell you where to go. (or He or she can tell you where to go.)

See also:

It

We use it to refer to things:

My computer isn’t working. It’s crashed again. Can you have a look at it?

We use it as an empty pronoun, also known as a ‘dummy’ subject, where there is no other subject to put in the subject position, particularly when referring to the weather or time:

It’s so lovely to see you.

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It’s already ten o’clock.

It’s snowing.

We usually use it to refer to countries, vehicles and machines. In some traditional styles, she was sometimes used, but this is now considered inappropriate by many people:

We spent three weeks in Malaysia. It’s a beautiful country.

Three hours after the ship sailed, it developed engine trouble. (or, more traditionally: … she developed engine trouble.)

See also:

We, us

We use we and us to refer to different groups of people, but always including the speaker. We and us can refer to the speaker + the listener, or the speaker + other people but not the listener, or people in general including the speaker:

We could go and see a film tonight. What do you think? (we = speaker + listener)

Gerald asked us if we’d drive to London and get you. (us/we = speaker + others but not listener you)

Changing diet, rather than dieting, is a healthier alternative. There are changes we should all make. (we = speaker + listener + all other people)

They, them

We use they and them to refer to specific groups of people, things and animals:

The kids are getting on my nerves. They’re making so much noise. Can you tell them to be quiet? I’m trying to work.

A:

Have you seen my keys? I never remember where I’ve left them.

B:

They’re by the front door.

We also use they and them to refer to institutions or authorities, and groups of people in general:

I heard they’re going to publish a new edition of ‘War and Peace’.

They’re opening the new motorway tomorrow.

See also:

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