Câu Phức ( Complex Sentence Là Gì ? Phân Loại Và Bài Tập Phân Loại Và Bài Tập

Một cấu trúc ngữ pháp nữa trong Tiếng anh và được dùng khá thường xuyên bên cạnh câu ghép(compound sentence) trong phần Writing IELTS đó chính là câu phức (Complex Sentence). Vì thế, hãy cùng học tiếng anh giao tiếp online VN tìm hiểu rõ về câu phức (complex sentence), và cách viết câu phức nhé!


1. Câu phức (complex sentence) là gì?

Sự kết hợp giữa một mệnh đề độc lập (Independent clause) và một hay nhiều mệnh đề phụ thuộc (dependent clauses) sẽ tạo ra một câu phức. Để thành thạo dạng câu này, các bạn buộc phải phân biệt được đâu là independent clause và đâu là dependent clause. Vị trí của dependent clause rất quan trọng dù nó không làm thay đổi nghĩa của câu nhưng sẽ quyết định xem câu của chúng ta nên có dấu phẩy (comma) hay không, qua đó quyết định tính đúng sai về mặt văn phạm của câu.

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Thông thường, mệnh đề phụ thuộc bắt đầu với các liên từ phụ thuộc (subordinating conjunctions) như sau:

Although / Even though / Though After / Since / Until /While / As / Before / When If / Because / Unless Whenever / Whereas / Wherever

Ví dụ:

Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon , I did not see them at the station.

While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late.

After they left on the bus, Mary and Samantha realized that Joe was waiting at the train station.

Though he was very rich, he was still very unhappy.

She returned the computer after she noticed it was damaged.

The movie, though very long, was still very enjoyable.

Liên từ phụ thuộc

Ý nghĩa

Ví dụ


At a later time

After she gave me some advice, I knew how to solve this problem.Soon/Shortly after moving to London, she got a new job.

· A year after leaving his job, he is still unemployed.

Although/ (Even) Though

(Though is more common than although in general, especially in speaking)


· He decided to go, although I begged him not to.

· She”ll probably come tonight, although I don”t know exactly when.

Because / As / Since

‘Because’ is more common than ‘as’ and ‘since’, both in writing and speaking while ‘as’ and ‘since’ are more formal than ‘because’.

‘As’ and ‘since’ focuses more on the result than the reason, whereas ‘because’ focuses on the reason rather than ‘as’ and ‘since’.


To connect the result of something with its reason.

· We can”t go to Julia”s party because we”re going away that weekend.

Just because I”m lending you my dress for tonight doesn”t mean you can borrow it whenever you want to.Since we”ve got a few minutes to wait for the train, let”s have a cup of coffee.

· I think that they”re not coming, since they haven”t replied to the invitation.

As everyone already knows each other, there’s no need for introductions.

· I hope they’ve decided to come as I wanted to hear about their India trip.


At an earlier time

Before the boss comes to the office, we must finish this report and put it on his desk.

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· You should always check your oil, water and tyres before taking your car on a long trip.

If / As long as

Used to say that a particular thing can or will happen only after something else happens

· I”ll pay you double if/as long as you get the work finished by Friday.

· You can have a dog if/as long as you promise to take care of it.


If / Whether

Note: we use ‘whether’ and not ‘if’:

1) directly before ‘or not’;

2) after prepositions; 3) before to-infinitives (talk about future plans or decisions);

Indirect speech;


Shows two or more possibilities:

· Mrs. Kim called half an hour ago to ask if/whether her cake was ready.

· I”m going, if/whether she likes it or not.

· I’m going, whether or not she likes it.

· We’re not interested in whether we get great jobs, we just want to have a good time.

· I am wondering whether to have the fish or the beef.

While / Whilst

(Whilst more formal, less common than while)

during the time that (trong khi)

· I gained a lot of weight while I was on holiday.

· I read it while you were drying your hair.

While I was in Italy, I went to see my old friend.

despite the fact that; Although (mặc dù)

While I accept that he”s not perfect in many respects, I do actually like the man.While I fully understand your point of view, I also have some sympathy with Michael”s.

compared with the fact that; But (nhưng, còn)

· Tom is very extrovert and confident while Katy”s shy and quiet.

· He wanted to go the party while I wanted to stay in.


At a point of time

(tại thời điểm)

· She was only 20 when she had her first baby.

When the new park opens, I’ll go there every day.


Warning: ‘Whereas’ means the same as ‘while’ in sentences expressing contrasts. It does not mean the same as ‘while’ when ‘while’ refers to time

to indicate a contrast between two facts or ideas

· He loves foreign holidays, whereas/while his wife prefers to stay at home.

Whereas/While the population of working age increased by 1 million between 1981 and 1986, today it is barely growing.

· The secretary took care of my appointments while I was away from the office.

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Not: … whereas I was away from the office.



2. Cách phân biệt giữa mệnh đề phụ thuộc và mệnh đề độc lập

Để có thể phân biệt được 2 loại mệnh đề này trong câu phức (complex sentence) chúng ta có các lưu ý sau:

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